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A Brief Analysis of the Application of Solar Energy in Architecture

Views:4     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2019-04-04      Origin:Site

In recent years, under the background of energy-saving and low-carbon, building energy-saving has become a hot topic in all walks of life. At present, China's building energy consumption accounts for 30% of the total energy consumption. Unit building area heating energy consumption is three times that of developed countries, about 95% of new buildings are high-energy buildings every year.

Therefore, the improvement of energy-saving and emission reduction level in the construction industry is of great significance for improving the low carbon level of the entire national economy. Although solar energy heat utilization industry with the national support for policy, build on the express the solar electrical appliances to the countryside, but in the past two years on the road of real estate project development, is still difficult to accept by many developers, the main reason is that the development cost (solar building construction cost may be increased to 230 yuan per square meter) increase cannot drive home sales, combined with the existing solar product life is short, the maintenance cost is high, these can make developers' enthusiasm is not high. But in the next 15 years, China's urbanization process will continue to grow rapidly, and the market focus of the solar industry will gradually shift from rural to urban areas, which will bring unlimited business opportunities to real estate developers.


Solar energy is the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy in the world. Generally speaking, the application of solar energy in buildings includes power supply utilization and light and heat utilization.


1. The power supply is using solar power. It can be divided into thermal power generation and photo-voltaic power generation, thermal power generation is the sun's light reflex, use mirrors to focus sunlight, produce steam on the focal point, through steam turbine driven by steam turbine generator to generate electricity, so it as the common thermal generators, and only produce steam in a different way; Photovoltaic power generation is to use the photovoltaic effect of solar cells to directly convert solar energy into electric energy, which is commonly used in buildings, such as some lawn lamps, courtyard lamps and street lamps.


2. Photo-thermal utilization is to convert solar energy into heat energy and provide domestic hot water, which mainly includes two parts: one is the heat collecting part, and the other is the end heating part. According to the different heating parts, it is divided into solar hot water, solar heating and solar cooling.


(1) The solar hot water for the common use, including the use of solar collector can be roughly divided into two categories: flat-plate solar collector with vacuum tube type solar collector, the flat solar collector by endothermic board, plate, insulation layer and the shell of four parts, the heat absorbing plate are mainly used in coating paint coating, anodic oxidation coating, black chromium coating and magnetron sputtering coating; The vacuum tube is divided into all-glass vacuum tube, u-tube vacuum tube, metal heat tube vacuum tube and glass heat tube. In the project of combining solar energy with buildings, flat-plate solar energy heat collecting system is favored by real estate developers and design units for its characteristics of long life, stable performance, pressure-bearing operation and easy combination with buildings. The solar energy engineering system design form has many kinds, for the residential building commonly used system has four kinds: the household solar energy water heater, the balcony wall hangs the solar energy water heater, the centralized collection heat - the centralized storage heat solar energy hot water system and the centralized collection heat - the solar energy hot water system which divides the household to store the heat.


(2) In recent years in addition to the widespread use of solar hot water, solar heating system is more common, it refers to the solar energy as the heating source of the heating system, the use of solar collectors will be converted into heat energy, the supply of buildings in winter heating and other heating systems throughout the year. Solar heating can be divided into active type and the passive type. Passive solar heating enables buildings to fully collect, store and distribute solar radiant heat in winter through the orientation of buildings and reasonable arrangement of surrounding environment, ingenious treatment of internal space and external form, and appropriate selection of building materials and structure. The active system is mainly composed of solar energy collection system, heat storage system, terminal heating and heating system, automatic control system and other energy auxiliary heating and heat exchange equipment. Compared with the passive type, the heating condition is more stable, but the investment cost is also increased, and the system is more complex. With the development of economy and society, active solar heating has been widely used. Due to the low density of heat, solar energy heat temperature is difficult to reach a higher level, ordinary radiator heat medium temperature above 70 ℃, and the solar system is not easy to meet the requirements of the water temperature, therefore, usually by the end of the floor radiant heating way of heating, low temperature hot water floor heating need between 35 and 55 ℃, is a solar collector can provide suitable temperature.


(3) The so-called solar cooling, is the use of solar collector an absorption chiller to provide its generator needed by the heat media water. In summer, the hot water heated by the collector first enters the storage tank. When the hot water temperature reaches a certain value, the storage tank provides the refrigerant with hot water. The hot water which flows out of the refrigerant and has been cooled is returned to the water storage tank, which is then heated into hot water by the collector. The refrigerant water produced by the refrigerator leads to the air conditioning box to achieve the purpose of refrigeration and air conditioning. When solar energy is not enough to provide high temperature heat medium water, the auxiliary boiler can supplement the heat. However, at present, the initial investment of this system is on the high side, and it is only applicable to buildings with few floors, and it is only applicable to the central air conditioning unit, which has certain limitations. In order to further promote solar air conditioning technology, I believe that with the strong support of the government and society, closely relying on the mature market of solar water heater. Solar air conditioning technology will have broad application prospects in the future.


At present, domestic building energy consumption accounts for the whole society the proportion of the total energy consumption is large. Hot water, air conditioning and heating energy consumption accounts for about 65% of building energy consumption, and comprehensive utilization of solar energy, solar energy hot water can be added 15% of building energy consumption, heating and refrigeration system can solve 50% of building energy consumption, photovoltaic power generation can save 30% of the buildings, the energy consumption can be built into the ideal of zero energy consumption. The so-called integration of solar energy and architecture is the organic combination of solar energy utilization facilities and buildings, and the use of solar collectors to replace the roof cover or roof insulation, which not only eliminates the influence of solar energy on the image of buildings, but also avoids the repeated investment and reduces the cost. The integration of solar energy and building is the direction of the development of solar energy technology in the 21st century. The integrated technology of solar energy and architecture has the following characteristics:


1. The utilization of solar energy is integrated into the overall design of the environment, and the architecture, technology and aesthetics are integrated. Solar energy facilities become part of the building and organically combine with each other, replacing the influence of traditional solar energy structure on the appearance of the building;


2. The complete replacement or partial replacement of roof coverings by solar facilities can reduce costs and improve efficiency;


3. It can be used for flat roof or sloping roof, generally for flat roof, and for sloping roof, Mosaic;


4. The solar water heater is fully incorporated into the building parts system and becomes an integral part of the building system, which is synchronized with the building design, construction and property management in the later stage.


Above all, as the country is becoming more and more attention to energy conservation and emissions reduction, the parts of the building energy conservation and emission reduction targets has been included in the assessment of the government, such as solar energy and building integrated have been forced into the initiative to solve, this will give a clear signal of real estate development enterprises, over the next few years under the support of government policy, new development projects must introduce solar energy utilization system, only in this way can truly energy saving substantial is manifested.


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